The course 'Antimicrobial resistance - theory and methods' prepared by the Technical University of Denmark, National Food Institute, is available as a massive open online course (MOOC) with on-demand features for anyone that wishes to know more about the basics of antimicrobial resistance. 

In 16 short video-lectures, the course covers topics such as basic definitions and overview of antimicrobials and antimicrobial effects, antimicrobial mechanisms, selection and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance as well as module on antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. Moreover, it includes the use of genomic tools for analysis of Whole Genome Sequencing data for detection of resistance genes (and other genes of interest).

We invite you to explore the MOOC via this link:


Also, an online course on 'Whole Genome Sequencing tools and applications in surveillance of pathogens' is under preparation and is expected to be launched after summer 2017.

Some of the material prepared for this course is already now available for access on a web-link ( including video lectures about bacterial subtyping and applications of next generation technology to perform research and monitoring, and also demonstrations and guided exercises on the use of online tools. 

The lectures provide a background for WGS analyses and present the Center for Genomic Epidemiology (CGE) tools which are available online and can be used widely and by non-bioinformaticians.

Expert rules
European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST)

EUCAST expert rules are a tabulated collection of expert knowledge on intrinsic resistances, exceptional resistance phenotypes and interpretive rules that may be applied to antimicrobial susceptibility testing in order to reduce errors and make appropriate recommendations for reporting particular resistances. 

Link to EUCAST expert rules: 

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) documents are developed by experts working on document development committees, subcommittees or working groups under the direction and supervision of a consensus committee. Development of CLSI standards is a dynamic process with the current documents available for purchasing via the CLSI website: 

EURL-AR recommended cut off values for monitoring of AST
(PDF document, 70 KB) 
Suggested procedure for lysis of blood
On the list of reference strains available for distribution for contacts in the EURL-AR network, it is registered when a strain is not avaliable for distribution from DTU Food. In such cases it is possible to send you the DNA for the use when performing PCR. Also, in case you should want to have the strain(s), and not only the boiling lysate you are welcome to contact the EURL and we can provide information regarding who can supply you with the strain(s).
EURL-AR reference strains
EURL-AR reference strains
(PDF document, 70 KB)
List of primers for detection of antimicrobial resistance genes.
EURL-AR primer list
EURL-AR primer list
(PDF document, 130 KB)